Matrix Browser

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1. Energy is a physical quantity that follows precise natural laws.
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1.1 Energy is a quantity that is transferred from system to system.
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1.2 The energy of a system or object that results in its temperature is called thermal energy.
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1.3 Energy is neither created nor destroyed.
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1.4 Energy available to do useful work decreases as it is transferred from system to system.
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1.5 Energy comes in different forms and can be divided into categories.
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1.6 Chemical and nuclear reactions involve transfer and transformation of energy.
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1.7 Many different units are used to quantify energy.
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1.8 Power is a measure of energy transfer rate.
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2. Physical processes on Earth are the result of energy flow through the Earth system.
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2.1 Earth constantly changes as energy flows through the system.
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2.2 Sunlight, gravitational potential, decay of radioactive isotopes, and rotation of the Earth
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2.3 Earth’s weather and climate are mostly driven by energy from the Sun.
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2.4 Water plays a major role in the storage and transfer of energy in the Earth system.
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2.5 Movement of matter between reservoirs is driven by Earth’s sources of energy.
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2.6 Greenhouse gases affect energy flow through the Earth system.
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2.7 The effects of changes in Earth’s energy system are often not immediately apparent.
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3. Biological processes depend on energy flow through the Earth system.
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3.1 The Sun is the major source of energy for organisms and the ecosystems of which they are a part
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3.2 Food is a biofuel used by organisms to acquire energy for internal living processes.
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3.3 Energy available to do useful work decreases as it is transferred from organism to organism.
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3.4 Energy flows through food webs in one direction, from producers to consumers and decomposers.
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3.5 Ecosystems are affected by changes in the availability of energy and matter.
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3.6 Humans are part of Earth’s ecosystems and influence energy flow through these systems.
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4. Various sources of energy are used to power human activities.
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4.1 Humans transfer and transform energy from the environment into forms useful for human endeavors
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4.2 Humans use of energy is subject to limits and constraints.
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4.3 Fossil and biofuels are organic matter that contain energy captured from sunlight.
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4.4 Humans transport energy from place to place.
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4.5 Humans generate electricity in multiple ways.
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4.6 Humans intentionally store energy for later use in a number of different ways.
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4.7 Different sources of energy and different ways energy is transformed, transported, and stored.
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5. Energy decisions are influenced by economic, political, environmental, and social factors.
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5.1 Decisions concerning the use of energy resources are made at many levels.
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5.2 Energy infrastructure has inertia.
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5.3 Energy decisions can be made using a systems-based approach.
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5.4 Energy decisions are influenced by economic factors.
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5.5 Energy decisions are influenced by political factors.
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5.6 Energy decisions are influenced by environmental factors.
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5.7 Energy decisions are influenced by social factors.
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6. The amount of energy used by human society depends on many factors.
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6.1 Conservation of energy has two very different meanings.
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6.2 One way to manage energy resources is through conservation.
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6.3 Human demand for energy is increasing.
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6.4 Earth has limited energy resources.
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6.5 Social and technological innovation affects the amount of energy used by human society.
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6.6 Behavior and design affect the amount of energy used by human society.
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6.7 Products and services carry with them embedded energy.
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6.8 Amount of energy used can be calculated and monitored.
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7. The quality of life of individuals and societies is affected by energy choices.
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7.1 Economic security is impacted by energy choices.
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7.2 National security is impacted by energy choices.
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7.3 Environmental quality is impacted by energy choices.
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7.4 Increasing demand for and limited supplies of fossil fuels affects quality of life.
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7.5 Access to energy resources affects quality of life.
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7.6 Some populations are more vulnerable to impacts of energy choices than others.
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8. Wood based bio-fuels are one form of energy that is renewable
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8.1 Sources of cellulosic residuals used are found in forest operations and in industry process
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8.2 Transportation and logistic considerations shape cost and feasibility within supply chains.
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8.3 Pretreatment processess makes sugars more available.
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8.4 The conversion processess includes adding specific enzymes to make simple sugars available.
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8.5 Fermentation processess use specialized yeasts to create isobutanol.
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8.6 Liquid fuel can be produced from wood feedstocks.
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8.7 Co-products in biofuel production use lignin in many ways.
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8.8 Life cycle analysis take account of ecological factors that are in steps of the supply chain.